Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Balfour Declaration Influence on Formation of Israel

Few documents in Middle Eastern history have had as consequential and controversial an influence as the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which has been at the center of the Arab-Israeli conflict over the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The Balfour Declaration   The Balfour Declaration was a 67-word statement contained within a brief letter attributed to Lord Arthur Balfour, the British foreign secretary, dated November 2, 1917.  Balfour addressed the letter to Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a British banker, zoologist and Zionist activist who, along with Zionists Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, helped draft the declaration much as lobbyists today draft bills for legislators to submit. The declaration was in line with European Zionist leaders hopes and designs for a homeland in Palestine, which they believed would bring about intense immigration of Jews around the world to Palestine. The statement read as follows: His Majestys Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. It was 31 years after this letter, whether willed by the British government or not, that the state of Israel was founded in 1948. Liberal Britain’s Sympathy for Zionism Balfour was part of the liberal government of Prime Minister David Lloyd George. British liberal public opinion believed that Jews had suffered historical injustices, that the West was to blame and the West had a responsibility to enable a Jewish homeland. The push for a Jewish homeland was aided, in Britain and elsewhere, by fundamentalist Christians who encouraged the emigration of Jews as one way to accomplish two goals: depopulate Europe of Jews and fulfill Biblical prophecy. Fundamentalist Christians believe that the return of Christ must be preceded by a Jewish kingdom in the Holy Land). The Declaration’s Controversies The declaration was controversial from the start, and chiefly due to its own imprecise and contradictory wording. The imprecision and contradictions were deliberate—an indication that Lloyd George did not want to be on the hook for the fate of Arabs and Jews in Palestine. The Declaration did not refer to Palestine as the site of the Jewish homeland, but that of a Jewish homeland. That left Britains commitment to an independent Jewish nation very much open to question. That opening was exploited by subsequent interpreters of the declaration, who claimed that it was never intended as an endorsement of a uniquely Jewish state. Rather, that Jews would establish a homeland in Palestine alongside Palestinians and other Arabs established there for almost two millennia. The second part of the declaration—that â€Å"nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities†Ã¢â‚¬â€could be and has been read by Arabs as an endorsement of Arab autonomy and rights, an endorsement as valid as that proffered on behalf of Jews. Britain would, in fact, exercise its League of Nations mandate over Palestine to protect Arab rights, at times at the expense of Jewish rights. Britain’s role has never ceased to be fundamentally contradictory. Demographics in Palestine Before and After Balfour At the time of the declaration in 1917, Palestinians—which were the â€Å"non-Jewish communities in Palestine†Ã¢â‚¬â€constituted 90 percent of the population there. Jews numbered about 50,000. By 1947, on the eve of Israel’s declaration of independence, Jews numbered 600,000. By then Jews were developing extensive quasi-governmental institutions while provoking increasing resistance from Palestinians. Palestinians staged small uprisings in 1920, 1921, 1929 and 1933, and a major uprising, called the Palestine Arab Revolt, from 1936 to 1939. They were all quashed by a combination of British and, beginning in the 1930s, Jewish forces.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Women s Suffrage The Long Resisted Struggle Of Equal...

Nationalizing Women’s Suffrage: The long resisted struggle of equal right voting â€Å"Remember the ladies†, wrote boldly by the soon to be First Lady Abigail Adams to her husband John Adams in March 1776. Abigail Adams’s words were one of the first noted mentions in the United States foreshadowing the beginning of a long suppressed battle towards women’s suffrage. The fight for women suffrage was a movement in which women, and some men included, pleaded for equal rights regarding voting and women’s voice within the political realm. Women’s suffrage was not a matter of instant success; it endured a prolonged time to achieve. It was not until August 1920, about 14 decades later after Abigail Adam’s words, that the 19th amendment which had provided everyone the right to vote regardless of a person’s â€Å"sex†, had passed. Although the 19th amendment nationalized equal voting rights in the country in 1920, many states ratified this amendment in even later years. The lengthy period and long complex battles to wards victory were the result of many obstacles between suffragists and anti-suffragists; obstacles which hindered the movement’s progress and which are not limited to: traditionally accustomed values, religion, split arguments within the movement, and other national political setbacks. If these setbacks were handled differently in a more urgent manner, women suffrage might have achieved earlier than 1920 or in a shorter amount of gruesome activism period. First and foremost, inShow MoreRelatedInformative Speech- Womens Rights Essay1776 Words   |  8 Pagesdid Womens Rights Movement come about? Women were not allowed to vote. They usually could not get higher education. Often, they could not get jobs, and when they did, they get paid less than men for for the same work. They could not own property, in many countries, including England. In some places, if they had money and got married, the money became the property of their husbands. The Womens Rights Movement started because they were sick of the unfairness. Womens rights are the rights and elementsRead MoreWomen Before and After the Pahlavi Period in Iran5501 Words   |  23 PagesWomen Before and After the Pahlavi Period In Iran Hashem Alshakhas December 11 2013 Table of Contents Section Page Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..1 Rise of Reza and Muhammad Shah†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.1 The first Pahlavi period- Reza Shah†¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.5 Modernization, unveiling and clash with the citizens†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 TheRead MoreIroquois Confederacy9092 Words   |  37 Pagesor people of the longhouse, referring to the construction of their homes, in which extended families of up to 50 people lived together in bark-covered, wooden-framed houses that were 50 to 150 feet long. They also envisioned their extended community as occupying a symbolic longhouse some 300 miles long, with the Mohawk guarding the eastern door and the Seneca the western. The origin of the name Iroquois is uncertain, although it seems to have involved French adaptations of Indian words. Among theRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesHartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited by MichaelRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesThe Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management http://www.mhhe.com/primis/online/ Copyright  ©2005 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Modern Mens Movement Essay Example For Students

The Modern Mens Movement Essay The 1970s saw the intensification of the feminist movement as a social,moral, and political force in the American arena. They focused their attentionon the systematic oppression of women in politics and business. They wereattacking male chauvinism, dominance, and a social system that relegated femalesto household duties. By most standards, the feminist movement has beensuccessful in nearly all of its endeavors. The result, however, has left theAmerican male uncertain of his own role in not only the dating arena, but thebusiness, marriage, and society in general. All the things that once made a mandesirable now make him the enemy of the advancement of women. The result hasbeen a reactionary Male movement. Though not as prominent in the media orpolitics the feminine counterpart, it has garnered a rather loyal followingthrough the 1980s and 1990s. It focuses not on mens rights, but functionsmore as a male bonding experience that educates and enlightens men about theirnew roles. Created in the mid 1980s, the Mythopoetic mens movement emanatesfrom the works of Robert Bly. His view is that the mens role has lost direction. The mens gatherings are to reconstruct a valid male initiation and role model. (Schocke)This male movement has been cautiously encouraged by womens groups. Most realize the new pressures being exerted on men by the changes in societyand recognize a male movement as a means to finding the new balance. I believethat we, I.e. men and women, need a mens movement in the sense of men thathave come to understand the evils of patriarchy These are men who areprepared to work in harmony with women to create a new society liberated frompatriarchy. (Hagan, 14) Women want and need the mens movement as bad or worsethen men do. The entire point of the feminist movement is to change men. Thoughnot overtly stated as such, the promotion of women must occur in mens thoughtsto happen in a society initially run by men. They must encourage men to not onlybond with each other, but to reconstruct their mindset in a way more appropriateto the new social structure. That is exactly the point of the mens movement. It is important hereto distinguish between different factions of the mens movement. There are morethan a few, but most fall into one of two categories. The smaller, lessimportant group deals with their frustration in a non-directed physical bondingmanner. They have gone so far as to assume initiation and celebration ritualssimilar to those of Native American culture. The larger group, includingfeminists and male liberationists, believe in feminization of the male character. Masculinity distorts an individuals nature. It puts him out of touch with hisemotions. Men do not cry. They do not touch each other. They do not form realfriendships. They are too silent. They are aggressive, achievement oriented,competitive bullies. (Stearns, 179) Stearns goes on to assert that by assumingmore feminine emotional and social traits that allow more healthy relationships. The problems with male-hood have not arisen as a result of menscomplacency, but the sudden rapid change in the status of women. Men may beless responsible for female dissatisfaction than womens inability to find thefamily an adequate substitute for traditional child bearing. (Stearn, 163)Suddenly, in the last decade, the role of the man has become uncertain. In the1950s and 60s, men were the breadwinners. A man brought to the marriage thecapability of support. The woman brought to the marriage the home and children. .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .postImageUrl , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:hover , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:visited , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:active { border:0!important; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:active , .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97 .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0994f916df016ac6d8f185c70cef6f97:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Attention Keepers in The Most Dangerous Game EssayNow, the women also bring in the money and the man has become an optional partof the family. Women can now become successful on their own and children becomea burden. The man ends up wanting the family more than the woman, and must giveup power to have it. When man loses his worth to the relationship, he loses thepower and his traditional role also. This shift in power also allows women more room to criticize qualitiesthat have previously gone unnoticed. To old complaints about male brutality orinsufficient attention were added new ones More recently women have becomefreer to criticize male lack of emotional sharing and sexual incompatibility.(Stearn, 163) Most feminists recognize that the male movement is a response totheir changing wants and needs. Most men, likewise, recognize that a change intheir own behavior is needed to promote the social well-being of both sexes. The television media today is but a single example of many institutionsstriving to embrace the goals of the mens movement. One television show comesto mind immediately. Home Improvement, and Tim (the toolman) Taylor personifythe male striving to embrace the new order. Every episode features a man tryingshed his male, grunting, belching, insensitive past. No watcher of 1990ssitcoms is unfamiliar with the patented Tim Allen grunt. His goal in life seemsto be to keep his wife and kids happy without giving up his tools. That is whatthe mens movement seems to be about, letting men be happy, keep their family,and their toys, tools, or whatever it is they cherish. There are several questions that need to be asked when the idea ofchanging either of the sexes arises, however. Why are we trying to change thetraits that have evolved in man over the last thousand years? Further, thereare certain traits in the male psyche that are genetically based. Are westriving to change those traits or suppressing them? We cannot change thegenetic code that makes a man. The expression of those traits can not bealtered, just hidden. Todays society strives to hide or change personal features to fitself perception as well as a wanted public image. People change hair color,eye color, and now, even physical sexual characteristics to fit the way theywant society to see them. Is the new mens movement just a reflection of thistrend? Men have been bashed through the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, menstarted wanting to change their public image, lest they become referred to asNeanderthals. The resultant movement may be seeking to give the male species afacelift. Category: Social Issues

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved

Table of Contents Introduction The Rainforests Preservation of the Rainforests Threats to the Rainforests Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Costa Rica (a country in South American) is located between Nicaragua and Panama. With a total land size of 19,653 sq miles, Cost Rica boarders Caribbean Sea and North Pacific Ocean.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The greatest distance connecting its principal point is 200 miles. This paper discusses Costa Rica with respect to preserved Rainforests and other related geographical phenomena. The country is not highly populated and has a total population of only 3.5 million people. It has five major geographical areas namely the Pacific, Caribbean, North Central Plains, Central Valley, and the Northwest Peninsula. It has seven provinces namely â€Å"Alajuela, Heredia, San Jose, Limon, Guanacaste , Cartago, and Puntarenas† (Infocostarica 1). Different regions of Costa Rica exhibit different geographical and climatic conditions. The regions have features such as volcanoes and mountains, rivers, forests, and valleys. The rainy season is one of the features of Costa Rica. This has increased the number of rivers and rainforests tremendously. Some of the major rivers in Costa Rica include San Juan, Tempisque, Sixaola, and Pacuare. There are numerous mountain ranges stretching across the country. A major mountain ridge is the Costa Rican ridge that includes Cordillera of Guanacaste, Cordillera Central, Cordillera of Tilaran, and Cordillera of Talamanca. The volcanic ranges in Costa Rica include the Guanacaste Range, the Central Volcanic Range and the Talamanca Range. The Rainforests Costa Rica is featured with various rainforests (a habitat of about 10000 species of trees and plants). More than a quarter of this Central American country is used as biological reserve and for wildlife refuge. It is also among the most bio-diverse countries in the world (Govisitcostarica 1). The forests in Costa Rica can be classified as rainforest, cloud forest, and topical dry forest. However, the rainforests are the most common in Costa Rica. They are mainly located in the south western parts of the country. Moreover, they exist in the Atlantic lowlands and characteristically featured by tall trees as well as drooping vines. The trees in the forests are tall and some reach up to 70 meters. The forests are habitat to many animals and many species of plants. Some of the rainforests include Arenal Volcano National Park, Barbilla National Park, Carara National Park and Braulio Carrillo National Park. The cloud forests are mainly located on the slopes of volcanoes and mountains. The tropical forests, on the other hand, are mainly in the North Pacific coast of the country.Advertising Looking for research paper on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first p aper with 15% OFF Learn More The rainforests of Costa Rica are characterized by high levels of biodiversity. Rainforests possess nearly 12000 species of vegetation as well as 1240 different kinds of butterflies. Species of birds in Costa Rica nears 838 while reptiles constitute 440. This is a critical ecological provision when observed decisively. In addition, there are 232 species of mammals (rainforests.mongabay 1). There are five different layers in the rainforests and these are the emergent, the canopy, the under storey, shrub and ground. Each of these layers has particular plants and animals that are adapted to the conditions in them. The rainforests are also characterized with many rivers and many waterfalls. Geographically, this is a critical provision in the context of biodiversity and environmental viability. It is important to protect the rainforests as advocated by the government. Rainforests receive approximately 2000 to 6000 mm of rain per year and are in the a ltitude of between 0-1000m above sea level. The highest temperature in the forests is usually 330C while the lowest is usually 22 degree centigrade (costarica21 1). The tropical rainforests have a variety of plants and trees. Some of the animals in the rainforests include the green basilisk, the green iguana, the two toed and the three toed sloth and the poison dart frog among many others. There are also different types of birds in the rainforests and these usually attract a lot of bird watchers. Preservation of the Rainforests Costa Rica has established and enacted critical conservation plans mandated to protect the mentioned rainforests considerably. The plan aims at protecting more than ten percent of the country so as to have large forest coverage. The implementation of the plan has began and one strip of forest covers over 40 miles without any interruption. The forest strip covers 9 ecological locations in Costa Rica. It extends to areas 12500M altitude. In 1995, the state init iated a credible program mandated to guard 18% of the Costa Rica’s rainforests. The 18 percent land coverage was to be converted into national parks. In addition to this, another 13 percent of the country was to be given to individuals so that they make private reserves. The state besieged regions with enormous biodiversity for protection. Land owners were issued with certificates of forest protection by the government. These certificates paid the land owners an average of $50 annually for every hectare of forest cover that they protected. This is the method through which the government funded the project. To this end, around two third of the country’s rainforests are under protection. The country has also initiated a number of programs to promote growth that can be sustained.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Forest Pro ject of the Foundation for the Development of Central Volcanic Mountain Range is one of the projects that that aim at promoting sustainable development. This project manages around 13000 hectares through the development of plans that land owners can use to manage forests (climatepath 1). Threats to the Rainforests Costa Rica earns remarkable revenue from ecotourism. The amount that tourism earns the country in terms of foreign exchange is higher than the amounts earned through the sale of timber. Rainforests have a lot of bio-diversity and this attracts tourists. This is a critical provision when considered decisively in the realms of economic growth and other viable developmental provisions. The parks that the country has are accessible and the safety standards are high. However, the number of tourists at the parks is at times restricted so as to avoid damage to the forests. The encroachment of the forests by hoteliers has also led to a lot of controversy in the country. Despite th e efforts exerted by Costa Rica to protect rainforests, the country has faced numerous challenges due to deforestation. Costa Rica once had a 99 percent forest cover. This environmental viability has reduced gradually. The present situation nears only 35 percent of forest cover. The main reasons for deforestation in this country is harvesting for timber and conversion of land for agricultural purposes. Loss of biodiversity and the effects on the climate are the two most severe consequences that destruction of the rainforests has on Costa Rica (Coztarica 1). The threats that rainforests of Costa Rica face also include high population growth, forest sustainability challenges, and human interferences. Areas with rapid population growth in Costa Rica are in the tropics. In these areas, people clear land for sustenance farming. Clearing of land, however, continue since rainforest soil loose nutrients quickly after a few years of farming. The other threat to the rainforests in this countr y is the global and regional climatic change. Global climatic changes have made the tropics warmer and have had the effect of changing the rainfall patterns and thus affect rainforests adversely (costarica21 1).Advertising Looking for research paper on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Costa Rica is a country rich in bio-diversity. The country has numerous geographical features with five major geographical regions and seven provinces. These regions have different climatic conditions. The country receives a lot of rains and has many rainforests. The abundant rain has made the country to have many rivers. The rainforests in the country act as homes to many animals and plants. They have five different layers. Each layer only harbors plants and animals adapted to it. this is a critical provision when scrutinized critically. The trees in the forests are usually tall and can reach up to 70 meters. The government of Costa Rica has put in place forest conservation plans and has involved citizens in the preservation of the rainforests. The goal is to ensure that there is a large forest cover in the country. There are also projects that develop management plans to assist in the management of protected forests. The forests have earned the country revenue through t ourism even though there are many challenges. The major challenges are deforestation, clearing of forest for farming, population growth, and global climatic changes that threaten the rainforests of Costa Rica. Works Cited Climatepath. Costa Rican Rainforests. 2012. Web. Costarica21. Costa Rica Tropical Rainforest. 2012. Web. Coztarica. Tropical rainforest – a Costa Rican treasure. 2012. Web. Govisitcostarica. Costa Rica Rainforests. 2012. Web. Infocostarica. Geography: Overview, by Infocostarica Staff. 2012. Web. Rainforests.mongabay. COSTA RICA. 2012. Web. This research paper on Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved was written and submitted by user Marissa Parsons to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on Pascal, Blaise

Pascal, Blaise, 1623-62, French scientist and religious philosopher. Studying under the path of his father, a civil servant, Pascal showed great intelligencies, especially in mathematics and science. Before he was 16 he wrote a paper on conic sections, which won the respect of the mathematicians of Paris; at 19 he invented a calculating machine. Credited with founding the modern theory of probability, Pascal also discovered the properties of the cycloid and contributed to the advance of differential calculus. In physics his experiments increased knowledge of atmospheric pressure through barometric measurements and of the equilibrium of fluids. As a young man, Pascal came under the influence of Jansenism, and in 1651 his sister Jacqueline, who had also embraced Jansenist beliefs, entered the convent at Port-Royal, the center of the movement. As a result of the death of his father and of his own narrow escape from death, Pascal in 1654 experienced what he called a conversion and therea fter turned much of his attention to religion. When Antoine Arnauld, a noted Jansenist, was attacked by the Jesuits, Pascal championed him in his Lettre escrite un provincial (1656). Those Provincial Letters, rendered into Latin, quickly circulated throughout Europe, and they still hold a leading place in the literature of polite irony. Pascal's religious writings were after the death of his father and published as Pensees de M. Pascal sur la religion et sur quelques autres sujets (1670). For a modern edition Thoughts: An Apology for Christianity (1955). In the Pensees, famous both as a religious and philosophical classic, Pascal states his belief in the inadequacy of reason to solve man's difficulties or to satisfy his hopes. He preached instead the final necessity of mystic faith for true understanding of the universe and its meaning to man.... Free Essays on Pascal, Blaise Free Essays on Pascal, Blaise Pascal, Blaise, 1623-62, French scientist and religious philosopher. Studying under the path of his father, a civil servant, Pascal showed great intelligencies, especially in mathematics and science. Before he was 16 he wrote a paper on conic sections, which won the respect of the mathematicians of Paris; at 19 he invented a calculating machine. Credited with founding the modern theory of probability, Pascal also discovered the properties of the cycloid and contributed to the advance of differential calculus. In physics his experiments increased knowledge of atmospheric pressure through barometric measurements and of the equilibrium of fluids. As a young man, Pascal came under the influence of Jansenism, and in 1651 his sister Jacqueline, who had also embraced Jansenist beliefs, entered the convent at Port-Royal, the center of the movement. As a result of the death of his father and of his own narrow escape from death, Pascal in 1654 experienced what he called a conversion and therea fter turned much of his attention to religion. When Antoine Arnauld, a noted Jansenist, was attacked by the Jesuits, Pascal championed him in his Lettre escrite un provincial (1656). Those Provincial Letters, rendered into Latin, quickly circulated throughout Europe, and they still hold a leading place in the literature of polite irony. Pascal's religious writings were after the death of his father and published as Pensees de M. Pascal sur la religion et sur quelques autres sujets (1670). For a modern edition Thoughts: An Apology for Christianity (1955). In the Pensees, famous both as a religious and philosophical classic, Pascal states his belief in the inadequacy of reason to solve man's difficulties or to satisfy his hopes. He preached instead the final necessity of mystic faith for true understanding of the universe and its meaning to man....

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Ethical Issues of Information Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Ethical Issues of Information Technology - Essay Example Computers are special technology that raises special ethical issues (Moor, 1991) and that such issues and problems are unique to the field. They would not have been issues had it not been for the technology itself (Maner, 1996). Ethical issues of information technology are called many names like computer ethics, information ethics, and cyberethics. In the whole of information systems management, whatever its name, the new technology radically reshapes life styles, at the same time creates challenges in the areas of privacy, property, security and individual identity (Information systems, 2007). The following discussion covers issues in consumer or online privacy, copyright, patents, trademarks, trade secrets, legal jurisdiction, and online contracting that manifest in the field of information technology. The details come in the form of definitions and philosophical reflections or historical events elucidating the issue. The paper then ends with a note on probabilities for the future. Computer and information technology may be used interchangeably throughout the paper and may mean the same. The Ethical Issues Online Privacy. The cheap, fast, painless encryption technology provided by the computer has transformed the privacy debate completely. While before, people worried about the wearing away of privacy, the concern now is about the computer-generated privacy "afforded to every criminal with a computer and half a brain." (Maner, 1996). Electronic mail has replaced telephone and inter-office mail communications as the principal medium of business communications and this has made work easier. Throughout it all, however, suddenly, one's email address has become known to merchandisers and one begins receiving a lot of unsolicited email daily about products being advertised. Identity theft generally involves obtaining data from individual consumers' financial transactions on the Internet or elsewhere, and either billing the consumers' credit cards for nonexistent transactions or services, or using consumers' personal data to conduct actual transactions that are billed to the consumers(Internet Fraud, 2000). Identity theft is an Internet fraud. There is a need for email privacy in the workplace and the blocking of bulk E-mail solicitations called "SPAM." How had the address been known to others The sale of personal information, or its use by a successor, according to Zaharoff (2001) may constitute "unfair or deceptive" act even if it is not a breach of contract. The Computer-Processed Personal Data Protection Act was passed in 1995, governing official agency as well as non-official agency (Yang & Chang, 2007). At present, however, the only eight categories of non-official agency governed by it are credit information, hospital, school, telecommunications, financing and banking, securities, insurance and mass communications (Yang & Chang, 2007). This means these agencies having to do with these concerns must apply